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egrebe@vitalant.org

Eduard Grebe, PhD

Research Associate

Research Associate

Eduard is a Researcher who works primarily on HIV incidence estimation. He was the principal analyst for the CEPHIA collaboration, an international consortium established to independently evaluate HIV incidence assays (i.e. laboratory tests for ‘recent’ HIV infection, used in cross-sectional incidence estimation) and serves on the World Health Organisation’s technical working group on HIV incidence assays. He is also the maintainer of the open source inctools package for the R statistical programming language, which provides implementations of standard methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation and for ‘calibrating’ tests for recent infection. He has a background in social science, having obtained his PhD in economics from the University of Cape Town for work on HIV/AIDS policy and civil society health activism in Sub-Saharan Africa

Recent publications

Facente S.N., E. Grebe, C.D. Pilcher, M.P. Busch, G. Murphy, & A. Welte (2020) Estimated dates of detectable infection (EDDIs) as an improvement upon Fiebig staging for HIV infection dating. Epidemiology and Infection 148:1-5 doi: 10.1017/S0950268820000503


Grebe, E., S.N. Facente, J. Bingham, C.D. Pilcher, A. Powrie, J.Gerber, G. Priede, T. Chibawara, M.P. Busch, G. Murphy, R. Kassanjee, & A. Welte (2019) Interpreting HIV diagnostic histories into infection time estimates: analytical framework and online tool. BMC infectious diseases 19(1):894, doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4543-9


Sempa J.B., A. Welte, M.P. Busch, J. Hall, D. Hampton, S.N. Facente, .S.M Keating, K. Marson, N. Parkin, C. D. Pilcher, G. Murphy, & E. Grebe (2019) Performance comparison of the Maxim and Sedia Limiting Antigen Avidity assays for HIV incidence surveillance. PloS one 14(7):e0220345 doi: /10.1101/572677


Gonese, E., P.H. Kilmarx, C. van Schalkwyk, E. Grebe, K. Mutasa, R. Ntozini, B. Parekh, T. Dobbs, Y.D. Pottinger, S. Masciotra, M. Owen, J.B. Nachega, G. van Zyl, & J.W. Hargrove (2019) Evaluation of the Performance of Three Biomarker Assays for Recent HIV Infection Using a Well-Characterized HIV-1 Subtype C Incidence Cohort. AIDS research and human retroviruses 35(7):615-627 Doi: 10.1089/aid.2019.0033


Pilcher, C., T.C Porco, S.N. Facente, P.E. Grebe, K.P. Delaney, M. Silvina, R. Kassanjee, M.P. Busch, G. Murphy, S.M. Owen, & A. Welte. (2019) A generalizable method for estimating duration of HIV infections using clinical testing history and HIV test results. AIDS 33(7): 1231-1240. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002190


Facente, S.N., M.P. Busch, E. Grebe, C.E. Pilcher, A. Welte, B. Rice, & G. Murphy (2019) Challenges to the performance of current HIV diagnostic assays and the need for centralized specimen archives: a review of the Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays (CEPHIA) repository [version 1; peer review: 3 approved, 1 approved with reservations]. Gates Open Research, 3:1511 doi: 10.12688/gatesopenres.13048.1


Vermeulen, M., N. Lelie, C. Coleman, N. Sykes, G. Jacobs, R. Swanevelder, M. Busch, G. van Zyl, E. Grebe, A. Welte, & R. Reddy (2019) Assessment of HIV transfusion transmission risk in South Africa: a 10-year analysis following implementation of individual donation nucleic acid amplification technology testing and donor demographics eligibility changes. Transfusion, 59(1): 267-276 doi: 10.1111/trf.14959


Grebe, P.E., A. Welte, L.F. Johnson, G. Van Cutsem, A. Puren, T. Ellman, J. Etard, & H. Huerga. (2018) Population-level HIV incidence estimates using a combination of synthetic cohort and recency biomarker approaches in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. PLOS ONE 13(9):1-16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203638


Nascimento, E.J.M., J.W. Huleatt, M.T. Cordeiro, P.M.S Castanha, J.K. George, P.E. Grebe, A. Welte, M. Brown, D.S. Burke, & E.T.A. Marques. (2018) Development of antibody biomarkers of long term and recent dengue virus infections. Journal of Virological Methods 257:62-68. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.04.009


Grebe P.E., M.D. Morris, E.L. Murphy, A. Mirzazadeh, J.L. Evans, & H.F. Raymond (2018) Estimated hepatitis C prevalence and key population sizes in San Francisco: A foundation for elimination. PLOS ONE 13(4):e0195575:14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195575


Grebe, P.E., A. Welte, J. Hall, S.M. Keating, S.N. Facente, K. Marson, J.N. Martin, S. J. Little , M.A. Price, E.G. Kallas, M.P. Busch, C.D. Pilcher, & G. Murphy. (2017) Infection Staging and Incidence Surveillance Applications of High Dynamic Range Diagnostic Immuno-Assay Platforms. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 76(5):547-555. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001537


Huerga, H., F. Shiferie, P.E. Grebe, R. Giuliani, J.B. Farhat, G. Van-Cutsem, & K. Cohen. (2017) A comparison of self-report and antiretroviral detection to inform estimates of antiretroviral therapy coverage, viral load suppression and HIV incidence in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases 17(653):653,8. doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2740-y


Murphy, G., C.D. Pilcher, S.M. Keating, R. Kassanjee, S.N. Facente, A. Welte, E. Grebe, K. Marson, M.P. Busch, P. Dailey, N. Parkin, J. Osborn, S. Ongarello, K. Marsh, & J.M. Garcia-Calleja (2017) Moving towards a reliable HIV incidence test-current status, resources available, future directions and challenges ahead. Epidemiology & Infection 145 (5), 925-941 doi: 10.1017/S0950268816002910


Murphy, G., C.D. Pilcher, S.M. Keating, R. Kassanjee, S.N. Facente, A. Welte, E. Grebe, K. Marson, M.P. Busch, P. Dailey, N. Parkin, J. Osborn, S. Ongarello, K. Marsh, & J.M. Garcia-Calleja (2016) Moving towards a reliable HIV incidence test - current status, resources available, future directions and challenges ahead. Epidemiology and Infection 145(5):925-941. doi: 10.1017/S0950268816002910


DSI-NRF Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis